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Hydrometallurgy

The anode plates are the source product for hydrometallurgical refining, where the copper is refined through an electrochemical process. The anode plates are put in electrolytic cells, which are filled with a sulphuric acid acid solution of copper sulphate - the electrolyte.
 
Under theinfluence of the electric current from the anodes, the copper is dissolved and carried in solution to cathodes made of high-grade steel. This copper is stripped by machine and supplied as cathode copper for further use. It is characterised by its high level of purity - the copper content is more than 99.99 %.
 
The cathodes listed on the London Metal Exchange under the brand name "BRX", are most suitable for the production of all types of copper finished products. The metallic impurities present alongside the copper in the anodes accumulate either in the electrolyte (e.g. nickel) or go into the anode slime.

From the anode slime, high-grade precious metals such as gold, silver and platinum/palladium are obtained through further hydrometallurgical processes developed by us; the nickel is extracted from the electrolyte as high-grade nickel sulphate.
 
Copper oxychloride is produced from copper chloride solution, which is sold as an active fungicide for plant protection. It is also sold as a finished product called Flowbrix.